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8th grade pacing guide

Teacher’s Name: Lea Ann Parnell and Christy Stinson

Content: 8th Grade Science

Grade: 8th

Weeks

Unit Topic

Content

Kentucky Core Academic Standards  

August 24-September 11

History of the Earth

 Fossils --mutations/evolution

 

Rock Strata Analysis

 

Geologic Time Scale

 

Plate Tectonics (Review--candy bar lab)

 

 

08-ESS1-4: Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence from rock strata for how the geologic time scale is used to organize Earth’s 4.6-billion-year-old history. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on how analyses of rock formations and the fossils they contain are used to establish relative ages of major events in Earth’s history. Examples of Earth’s major events could range from being very recent (such as the last Ice Age or the earliest fossils of homo sapiens) to very old (such as the formation of Earth or the earliest evidence of life). Examples can include the formation of mountain chains and ocean basins, the evolution or extinction of particular living organisms, or significant volcanic eruptions.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include recalling the names of specific periods or epochs and events within them.]

 September 12-October 9

Earth Systems

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Human Impact on Geologic Process

Plate Tectonics

 

Topographical and resource

 

Differences/availabilities of the Earth

 

Human impact on natural resources

(resources project--resources distribution map and articles

Global Water supply activities/portfolio)

 

 

 

 

 

Plotting data from recent earthquakes/volcanoes from USGS.gov

08-ESS3-1: Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for how the uneven distributions of Earth’s mineral, energy, and groundwater resources are the result of past and current geoscience processes. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on how these resources are limited and typically non-renewable, and how their distributions are significantly changing as a result of removal by humans. Examples of uneven distributions of resources as a result of past processes include but are not limited to petroleum (locations of the burial of organic marine sediments and subsequent geologic traps), metal ores (locations of past volcanic and hydrothermal activity associated with subduction zones), and soil (locations of active weathering and/or deposition of rock).]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

*****08-ESS3-2: Analyze and interpret data on natural hazards to forecast future catastrophic events and inform the development of technologies to mitigate their effects. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on how some natural hazards, such as volcanic eruptions and severe weather, are preceded by phenomena that allow for reliable predictions, but others, such as earthquakes, occur suddenly and with no notice, and thus are not yet predictable. Example of natural hazards can be taken from interior processes ( such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions), surface processes (such as mass wasting and tsunamis or severe weather events (such as hurricanes, tornadoes, and floods).  Examples of data can include the locations, magnitudes, and frequencies of the natural hazards,.  Examples of technologies can be global (such as satellite systems to monitor hurricanes or forest fires) or local (such as building basements in tornado-prone regions or reservoirs to mitigate droughts)

 October 10-November 6

Weather and Climate

Global Warming

Tie into the distribution map of resources/transportion

 

Analysis and interpretation of world graphical data

08-ESS3-5: Ask questions to clarify evidence of the factors that have caused the rise in global temperatures over the past century. [Clarification Statement: Examples of factors include human activities (such as fossil fuel combustion, cement production, and agricultural activity) and natural processes (such as changes in incoming solar radiation or volcanic activity). Examples of evidence can include tables, graphs, and maps of global and regional temperatures, atmospheric levels of gases such as carbon dioxide and methane, and the rates of human activities. Emphasis is on the major role that human activities play in causing the rise in global temperatures.]

 November 7-December 11

Human Impacts

Design a plan to minimize human affect from one of the research topics chosen in the previous units

 

 

 

 

 

Argumentative essay to summarize the population size, resources distribution, and effect on the environment and how to minimize the impacts

08-ESS3-3: Apply scientific principles to design a method for monitoring and minimizing a human impact on the environment.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of the design process include examining human environmental impacts, assessing the kinds of solutions that are feasible, and designing and evaluating solutions that could reduce that impact. Examples of human impacts can include water usage (such as the withdrawal of water from streams and aquifers or the construction of dams and levees), land usage (such as urban development, agriculture, or the removal of wetlands), and pollution (such as of the air, water, or land).]

 

08-ESS3-4: Construct an argument supported by evidence for how increases in human population and per-capita consumption of natural resources impact Earth’s systems. [Clarification Statement: Examples of evidence include grade-appropriate databases on human populations and the rates of consumption of food and natural resources (such as freshwater, mineral, and energy). Examples of impacts can include changes to the appearance, composition, and structure of Earth’s systems as well as the rates at which they change. The consequences of increases in human populations and consumption of natural resources are described by science, but science does not make the decisions for the actions society takes.]

 

December 12-January 8

January 9-February 12

Growth Development and

Reproduction of

Organisms

Genetic Traits/activities

 

Mutations (Down syndrome, Cancer cells, Sickle Cell Anemia, Trisomy X,  Blue People of Kentucky, etc.)

 

Homologous Structures

 

Dichotomous Keys

 

Punnet Squares

 

Sexual and Asexual Reproduction

08-LS3-1: Develop and use a model to describe why structural changes to genes (mutations) located on chromosomes may affect proteins and may result in harmful, beneficial, or neutral effects to the structure and function of the organism. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on conceptual understanding that changes in genetic material may result in making different proteins.] [Assessment May

Boundary: Assessment does not include specific changes at the molecular level, mechanisms for protein synthesis, or specific types of mutations.]

 

08-LS3-2: Develop and use a model to describe why asexual reproduction results in offspring with identical genetic information and sexual reproduction results in offspring with genetic variation. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using models such as Punnett squares, diagrams, and simulations to describe the cause and effect relationship of gene transmission from parent(s) to offspring and resulting genetic variation.]

 

08-LS4-5: Gather and synthesize information about the technologies that have changed the way humans influence the inheritance of desired traits in organisms. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on synthesizing information from reliable sources about the influence of humans on genetic outcomes in artificial selection (such as genetic modification, animal husbandry, gene therapy); and, on the impacts these technologies have on society as well as the technologies leading to these scientific discoveries.]

 

February 13-March 12

Matter and Energy in Organisms and Ecosystems/Interdependent

Relationships in

Ecosystems

 

 

Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems

Abiotic and Biotic Factors review

Animal Behaviors and interactions

 

Population density

Carrying Capacity

Graph interpretations

 

 

Water, Carbon, Nitrogen cycles

 

Conservation Reserve Program

https://www.fsa.usda.gov/programs-and-services/conservation-programs/

 Extension Office resources/guest speakers

Nature preserve

08-LS2-4: Construct an argument supported by empirical evidence that changes to physical or biological components of an ecosystem affect populations. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on recognizing patterns in data and making warranted inferences about changes in populations, and on evaluating empirical evidence supporting arguments about changes to ecosystems.]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

08-LS2-5: Evaluate competing design solutions for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem services.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of ecosystem services could include water purification, nutrient recycling, and prevention of soil erosion. Examples of design solution constraints could include scientific, economic, and social considerations.]

 

 

 

March 13-April 9

     April 10-May 7

Structure, Function, and Information Processing

Animal behaviors

Innate vs learned responses

Animal communications

Fight or flight responses

 

08-LS1-8: Gather and synthesize information that sensory receptors respond to stimuli by sending messages to the brain for immediate behavior or storage as memories. [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include mechanisms for the transmission of this information.]

 

March 13-April 9

     April 10-May 7

 

 

Natural Selection and

Adaptations

 

Review fossil evidence for change in species over time

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bird Beak Island Activity

Homologous Structures

 

 

 

 

 

 

Embryological similarities among species

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adaptations

 

 

 

 

 

 

**Incorporation in the genetics unit through graphical data and punnet squares

 

 08-LS4-1: Analyze and interpret data for patterns in the fossil record that document the existence, diversity, extinction, and change of life forms throughout the history of life on Earth under the assumption that natural laws operate today as in the past. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on finding patterns of changes in the level of complexity of anatomical structures in organisms and the chronological order of fossil appearance in the rock layers.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the names of individual species or geological eras in the fossil record.]

 

 08-LS4-2: Apply scientific ideas to construct an explanation for the anatomical similarities and differences among modern organisms and between modern and fossil organisms to infer evolutionary relationships. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on explanations of the evolutionary relationships among organisms in terms of similarity or differences of the gross appearance of anatomical structures.]

 

08-LS4-3: Analyze displays of pictorial data to compare patterns of similarities in the embryological development across multiple species to identify relationships not evident in the fully formed anatomy. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on inferring general patterns of relatedness among embryos of different organisms by comparing the macroscopic appearance of diagrams or pictures.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment of comparisons is limited to gross appearance of anatomical structures in embryological development.]

 

08-LS4-4: Construct an explanation based on evidence that describes how genetic variations of traits in a population increase some individuals’ probability of surviving and reproducing in a specific environment. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using simple probability statements and proportional reasoning to construct explanations.]

 

 08-LS4-6: Use mathematical representations to support explanations of how natural selection may lead to increases and decreases of specific traits in populations over time. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using mathematical models, probability statements, and proportional reasoning to support explanations of trends in changes to populations over time.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include Hardy Weinberg calculations.]

 

 

May 8-end of the year

Energy

Engineering Design

Potential and Kinetic Energy

 

Design/engineering Project

08-PS3-1: Construct and interpret graphical displays of data to describe the relationships of kinetic energy to the mass of an object and to the speed of an object. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on descriptive relationships between kinetic energy and mass separately from kinetic energy and speed. Examples could include riding a bicycle at different speeds, rolling different sizes of rocks downhill, and getting hit by a wiffle ball versus a tennis ball.]